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Resource Title Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High School

This document identifies 11 research-based, interrelated elements that help adolescents learn to write well and to use writing as a tool for learning. The document provides specific instructional practices that improve students’ writing, and addresses implementation of the elements. The strategies, listed in descending order of effectiveness as documented by research, are:

  • Writing strategies (strategies for planning, revising, and editing)
  • Summarization (teaching explicitly and systematically)
  • Collaborative writing (working together to plan, draft, revise, and edit)
  • Specific product goals (assigning specific, reachable goals)
  • Word processing (using computers and word processors as instructional supports)
  • Sentence combining (constructing more complex, sophisticated sentences)
  • Prewriting (helping students generate or organize ideas)
  • Inquiry activities (analyzing immediate, concrete data to help develop ideas and content)
  • Process writing approach (interweaving activities in a workshop environment that stresses extended writing opportunities, writing for authentic audiences, personalized instruction, and cycles of writing)
  • Study of models (opportunities to read, analyze, and emulate models of good writing)
  • Writing for content learning (writing as a tool for learning content)

Resource Area(s)
Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
Type of Resource
Research Findings
Best Practices
Format PDF document
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